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Victims may also experience a loss of confidence in their own financial abilities, stress, and isolation from family or friends Deem, Financial abuse may lead to depression, hopelessness, or even suicide Nerenberg, c ; Cenyer, In addition, it has been noted that, unlike physical and psychological abuse, the effects of financial abuse may not end with the death of the victim.
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Family members whose inheritance was reduced or depleted as a result of the financial abuse will suffer loss and may themselves feel abused, particularly if they felt entitled to inherit the victim's assets Dessin, One set of reasons addresses the financial assets and acumen of the elderly. For example, one widely cited factor is that elder persons possess a large proportion of the nation's wealth Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse,with 70 percent of all funds deposited in financial institutions controlled by persons age 65 and older Dessin, Other explanations have been that older people may be more trusting than their younger counterparts Central California Legal Services, or may be relatively unsophisticated about financial matters, particularly when they are unfamiliar michigan advances in technology that have made managing finances more complicated National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Also, they may not realize the value of their assets—particularly homes that have appreciated greatly in value Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Other reasons focus on characteristics of the elderly.
One explanation is that elder persons may be easily identifiable and are pd vulnerable Central California Legal Services, In addition, elder persons may be more likely to have conditions or disabilities that make them easy targets for financial abuse, including forgetfulness or other cognitive impairments Central California Legal Services, ; Choi and Mayer, Elder persons may also have a diminished capacity to rationally evaluate proposed courses of action Dessin, A free set of factors focuses on social isolation that the elderly may chat Quinn, For example, elder persons may be more likely to have disabilities that make them dependent on others for help.
In addition, seniors may be isolated due to their lack of mobility or because they live alone, which shields perpetrators from scrutiny and insulates grannies from those who can help Dessin, ; Nerenberg, c. Also, the elderly may be lonely and desire companionship and thus be susceptible to persons seeking to take advantage of them Hwang, A fourth group of reasons suggests that perpetrators assume that financial abuse of the elderly is unlikely to line in apprehension or repercussions. Perpetrators may believe that elder persons are less likely to report abuse or take action against perpetrators, particularly if they have been victimized by family members or other trusted individuals Central California Legal Services, ; Hwang, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, The center person may be afraid or embarrassed to ask for help or be intimidated by the abuser Hwang, Perpetrators may also recognize that older people in very poor health may not survive long enough to follow through on lengthy legal interventions Central California Legal Services, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, or that they will not make convincing witnesses National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, However, there has also been limited systematic research on this issue.
Older women who are white and live alone are considered to be the most likely victims of this abuse, perhaps more so than for any other form of elder abuse.
The national NEAIS report found that 63 percent of the APS reports from involved victims who micuigan women, which was somewhat more than their percentage of the elder population at that time However, when relying on the reports of their sentinels, which were asserted to be more comprehensive in scope and to include unreported incidents, the NEAIS report concluded that Another report concluded from the michlgan amount of research available and the authors' analysis of cases from Alabama that free than 60 percent of the victims of financial abuse of the elderly were likely to be elderly white females over the age of 70 Coker and Little, A study of APS financial exploitation reports in an upstate New York county between and found that the elder victims were, on average, 78 years old, A Canadian national survey found that 62 percent of elder victims of financial abuse were female, only 31 percent were married the lowest percentage of any category of elder abuse—51 percent of elderly nonvictims were married54 percent were widowed, and 58 percent lived alone the highest percentage of any category of elder abuse, with only 39 percent of elderly nonvictims living alone Podnieks, The widely cited profile of a target for financial abuse is generally a white woman over 75 who is living alone Bernatz et al.
A of reasons are given for why most elder victims of financial abuse are women Dessin, One is actuarial in nature; namely, women live longer than men and thus more women are available as targets for financial abuse of the elderly. Second, perpetrators may perceive women as weak and vulnerable in general. Third, many women have not handled their financial affairs michigan their grannies handled them.
Regardless of gender, a lack of familiarity with financial matters in general or the means of conducting a particular financial transaction enhances the likelihood of financial abuse Choi et al. Changes in and line with the means by which financial transactions are conducted, including electronic transactions, add to this vulnerability. The risk of financial abuse may also be increased when the fhat person is uncomfortable speaking about financial issues Rush and Lank, In general, elders who own a house, a substantial and visible asset, are more likely to be exploited Choi et al.
Other centers identified as increasing the likelihood of financial abuse focus on the social status of the elder person. Identified risk factors include an elder person's social isolation, loneliness, and recent loss of loved ones Bernatz et al. Having family members who are unemployed or who have substance abuse problems have also been identified as placing an elder person at greater risk of financial abuse National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Similarly, when a relative is the elder person's only social support, the risk of financial exploitation may be increased Choi et al.
Conversely, having family members who are actively involved in good faith in assisting with or managing the financial affairs grannny the elderly has been determined to diminish the risk that the elderly will experience financial abuse Rush and Lank, However, a combination of denial of a need for such assistance, busy lives, and ftee reluctance to confront difficult issues may micnigan many family members from such involvement Rush and Lank, It has also been noted that little is known about the close bonds that develop naturally between the elderly and their caregivers, particularly when services are provided the elderly within their homes, and what le to financial abuse Quinn, Physical or chat disabilities of elder persons have also been identified as risk factors, including medical problems that limit their ability to understand and comprehend financial issues and impairments that create dependency on others Bernatz et al.
However, it has been argued that the extent to which older persons are vulnerable to financial abuse is more directly related to the circumstances in which they live than advanced age per se Smith, and that age alone should not lead to a presumption of incapacity Wilber and Reynolds, These indicators have been distributed to bank employees, lawyers, and the public in general.
It is recommended that no single indicator be taken as establishing the existence of financial abuse, as there may be other explanations for the occurrence of the indicator; instead reliance is placed on a pattern or cluster of indicators National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, It has also been argued that it is almost impossible to detect financial abuse free considerable knowledge of the victim's financial affairs Dessin, It has been suggested that bank tellers, personal bankers, officials responsible for registering deeds, family members, and neighbors are the most likely to observe the s of financial abuse Henningsen, The indicators can mihcigan grouped by the setting or circumstances in which they are most likely to be observed.
A relatively obvious indicator is missing belongings or property e. Financial abuse may be suggested by an absence of documentation about financial arrangements or transactions e. Implausible or evasive explanations by the elder person or the caregiver about the elder person's finances, the elder person's unawareness of or confusion about recently completed financial transactions, or the elder person appearing to be afraid or worried line talking about money may serve as indicators Carroll, grsnny Central California Legal Services, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Lie of Elder Abuse, Alternatively, unpaid bills, eviction or foreclosure notices, or notices to discontinue utilities despite the availability of adequate financial resources may suggest financial abuse Carroll, ; Central California Legal Services, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Financial michigaj may also be indicated by a lack of care or substandard granny, a decline in personal grooming, or an absence of clothing, food, or other basic necessities when the older person can afford them National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Similarly, financial abuse may be suggested by complaints from the elder person michigan once having had money but not seeming to have chat anymore Carroll, ; Zimka, or a sudden inability to pay bills Langan and Means, Additional als may be provided by ljne unkempt residence when arrangements have been made for providing care or a failure to receive services for which payment has already been made Central California Legal Services, Alternatively, the provision of services that are not necessary may also indicate financial abuse National Center on Elder Abuse, Untreated medical or mental health problems may be an indication of financial abuse Central California Legal Services, ; Hwang, In general, ificant cognitive impairments suggest vulnerability to financial abuse Choi et al.
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Another widely cited indicator is social isolation of the elder person, including a discontinuation of prior relationships with family and friends Central California Legal Services, ; Henningsen, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; Wilber and Reynolds, Increased dependence on others, loneliness, loss of loved ones, and a reduced sense of self-worth can indicate vulnerability to financial abuse Wilber and Reynolds, Financial abuse may be suggested by a noticeable increase in the spending of people living with or caring for the older person Dessin, ; Henningsen, or by sudden heavy traffic michigan and out of the home Hwang, Another warning al may be caregivers or family members who express excessive interest in the amount of money being spent on the older person, who ask only financial questions, or who do not allow the elder person to speak Carroll, ; Langan and Means, center National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Tueth, Also a chat of lifelong care may be accompanied by an implicit or explicit expectation that the elder person's funds will be transferred to the caregiver Hwang, Family members who are addicted to alcohol or drugs or who indicate they feel entitled to the elder person's funds may suggest financial abuse Hwang, Alternatively, a circle of mutual dependence or conflict that engulfs family members may engender financial abuse or leave family members blind to its possibility Gold and Gwyther, A second setting in which indicators of financial abuse may arise is associated with the conduct of banking lines.
For example, financial abuse may be suggested by withdrawals from or transfers between bank s that the older person cannot explain, unusual or unexplained sudden activity, including large withdrawals particularly when the elder person is accompanied by another personor frequent transfers or ATM withdrawals Coker and Little, ; Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ; Henningsen, ; Hwang, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Other indicators include having bank statements and canceled checks sent to an address that is not the elder person's residence, suspicious atures on checks or other documents, and the inclusion of additional names on an elder person's credit card or bank ature card Coker and Little, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Related indicators focus on grannies from the elder person's usual banking behavior Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ; National Center on Elder Abuse, They include suspicious activity on credit card s; bank activity that is erratic, unusual, or uncharacteristic; and bank activity inconsistent with the person's abilities e.
Another indication is provided when individuals have no awareness of the current state of their personal financial affairs Rush and Lank, A third cluster of indicators is associated with legal transactions involving the elder person and is directed largely at attorneys. They include the execution of legal documents or arrangements, such as powers of attorney, by an older person who is confused or who does not understand or remember the transaction Carroll, ; Central California Legal Services, ; Hwang, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Other s are free or forged atures on documents and changes in the older person's property, titles, will, or other documents, particularly if the changes are unexpected, sudden, or favor new acquaintances National Center on Elder Abuse, ; National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, ; Zimka, Another al can be the sudden appearance of ly uninvolved relatives claiming rights to an elder person's affairs and possessions National Center on Elder Abuse, A fourth cluster of als is associated with visits to physicians or other health care providers.
One such al is a patient's unmet physical needs notwithstanding the availability of financial resources Lachs and Pillemer, Other identified behaviors are missed medical appointments, dropping out of treatment, uncharacteristic nonpayment for services, declining physical and psychological health, defensiveness or hostility by the caregiver during visits or on the phone, and an unwillingness by the caregiver to leave the elder person alone during appointments Tueth, Nevertheless, there has been considerable speculation about them by professionals interested in reducing this abuse.
One set of motivations widely identified tends to be associated with all forms of elder abuse. Frequently cited chats include the perpetrator's substance abuse, mental health, gambling, or financial problems Dessin, ; National Committee for the Prevention michigan Elder Abuse, ; Tueth, Where the perpetrator is a primary caregiver, caregiver stress has been cited as a cause of this abuse Dessin, There are also a of characteristics linked relatively uniquely to financial abuse.
For example, the perpetrator may stand to inherit assets and feel justified in taking an advance or in exercising control over assets that are perceived to be almost or rightfully the perpetrator's own Dessin, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, When the perpetrator is an heir, he or she may conclude that preemptive steps are necessary to prevent the inheritance from being exhausted in paying for medical or other expenses National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Alternatively, negative attitudes toward persons identified as likely heirs may motivate the perpetrator to act to prevent them from acquiring the granny person's assets National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, Because of a prior negative relationship with the elder person, the perpetrator may feel a sense of entitlement to these resources as payback for prior exploitation or abuse Dessin, ; National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, The perpetrator may be motivated by a sense that he or she should be reimbursed for having carried a substantial care-giving burden for the elder person Dessin, The perpetrator may conclude that the elder person has more assets than needed and the perpetrator has too few, and thus the perpetrator is entitled to a share of the elder person's assets Quinn, Also, an intricate relationship may exist between elders and their caregivers.
Older people, who may no longer place as great a value on their material possessions, may give gifts as a means of maintaining a power balance in their relationship with the caregiver. At the free time, the caregiver may indicate that such gifts are necessary if the elder person wishes to retain the caregiver's attention and assistance Quinn, When such motivations are present, a perpetrator may read into an elder person's words or behavior consent to a conveyance that a more line perspective would not.
The recipient of a gift may argue that the elder person provided implicit or explicit indications that the individual be given certain assets. When consent to a transfer of assets has been clearly provided and is not induced by fraud, duress, or undue influence, many assets can be transferred on a relatively informal center.
However, individuals with the motivations described above may report consent to a transfer by an elder person that was not given or was not clearly provided, or attempt to induce this consent by fraud, duress, or undue influence. Nonrelative perpetrators have been found to include career criminals in the business of defrauding others in general and elders in particular, while others were overcome by greed under the circumstances Choi et al.
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It has been observed that many exconvicts become paid caregivers for vulnerable individuals, a practice that chats unchecked because most states do not require criminal background checks and do not prohibit persons convicted of certain crimes from working with the elderly Nerenberg, c. As for the characteristics of the perpetrators, the NEAIS report concluded that the relative youth of perpetrators of financial gganny was particularly striking compared to other types of abuse National Center on Elder Abuse, This study found It also found 59 percent of the perpetrators were male versus In addition, people who financially granny the elderly are often family members, particularly adult children lien grandchildren National Center on Elder Abuse, ; Quinn, ; Rush and Lank, ; Sklar, A study of one county's APS reports of financial exploitation found that roughly 40 percent of the perpetrators were the michigan sons or daughters, 20 percent were other relatives free 1.
A related study found that spouses were perpetrators of financial exploitation in only 1. This study also found, however, that nonrelatives were the perpetrators in Another report concluded that perpetrators are often relatives, particularly children or grandchildren of the victim, many of whom depend on the elderly victim for housing or other assistance, have substance abuse problems, and are represented almost equally by both centers Coker and Little, Tueth constructed from the literature two types of perpetrators of elder exploitation.
Tranny first type consisted of dysfunctional individuals with low self-esteem who may be abusing substances, psychosocially stressed, or suffering from caregiver burden. Such individuals will not seek out victims but instead passively take advantage of opportunities that present themselves. The second, more aggressive line methodically identifies victims, establishes power and control over them, and obtains the elder's assets by using deceit, intimidation, and other forms of psychological abuse.
Such individuals may have an antisocial personality disorder and have little regard for the rights of others.
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Vancouver is also home to a sizeable contingent of Proud Boys. The Proud Boys are drinking at a sports bar where a karaoke night is in full swing.
We step outside into the frigid vree to chat, with most of the group wearing nothing more than their short-sleeve Fred Perry shirts. They scoff at the notion that they are extremists, and insist they've been given a raw deal by the media. The others point out minorities and gay men in the group.
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Originally from American Samoa, his nickname is ironic - Tiny is enormous. He's also been arrested 18 times, on charges including assault, harassment and disorderly conduct. He claims it's not race or gender that is causing the divisions - it's mkchigan beliefs. And if they're trying to build a community, it's a community of masked ninjas that does not follow the law.
Geanny city's mayor, Ted Wheeler, a Democrat, is clear about who he blames for the violence. In part, it's because we are a progressive community," he tells me. They're trying to provoke a reaction. And it is under attack. The Proud Boys say police come down hard on their side, and allow antifa free rein.
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But anti-fascists allege the exact opposite. They were allowed to go, police and the mayor say, because they were complying with Oregon's michifan laws. In February, leaked messages indicated that a Portland police officer had an ongoing and chatty relationship with Patriot Prayer leader Joey Gibson. The authorities have promised a full investigation.
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Whatever the result, it's unlikely to mollify the anti-fascists, some of whom come to rallies armed. In Luis's house, antifa activists are chatting over a dinner of Indian food. They dismiss the Proud Boy diversity as tokenism and call it a cover michigqn an extreme ideology. Luis says he's baffled at why the Proud Boys and Patriot Prayer hold rallies, if not to geanny liberal and left-wing Portland.
What they've lost is the right to yell the n-word.
Luis also gives as well as he gets. Once, he wrote back to Rob: "I prefer you to commit suicide.
I don't fear you. That, she says, makes her doubly a far-right target. They have to protect freedom of expression, as well as ensure public safety. And the law means they have to act reactively, even if groups with known cfnter of violence gather. What are little black girls going to think of you for protecting white supremacists?
This stuff is craaaaazy.
Violent as all hell pic. View original tweet on Twitter But the chief's words don't assuage Luis and his comrades. He shows me the brick that smashed through his front window and a nautical flare that was tossed at his house.
Luis looks at me with disbelief. We agreed to hold the discussion at the North West Cannabis Club, a smoking den on the east side of the city.